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发表于 2018-12-15 17:47:45 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

  conversation 1

  Hey I just read a great book about physics。 I think you‘d like it。 It’s called the physics of the world。 It‘s written by a scientist named Sylvia Mendez。

  Oh I read that book。 It was great。 The writer is a warm and competent guide to the mysteries of physics。 I think it promises enrichment for any reader from those who know little about science to the career physicist。

  And it‘s refreshing to see a strong curious clever woman adding her voice to the scientific discourse and a field that has been traditionally dominated by men。 I think she has to be commended for making an effort to include anecdotes about little known female scientists。 You know they were often victims of a generation firmly convinced that the woman’s place was in the home。

  I like how the book is clearly written with each chapter brought to life by pieces of fascinating knowledge。 For example in one chapter she exposes a myth that I‘ve heard taught by university physics professors。 I’ve often heard that medieval glass windows are thicker at the bottom because glass flows like a fluid。 This, she shows, is not true。 The distortion is actually thanks to a peculiarity of the glassmakers process。

  Yeah I like how she cultivates scientific engagement by providing a host of Do It Yourself experiments that bring the same foundational principles of classical physics that govern everything from the solar system to your kitchen table。 From using complex laws of physics to test whether a spinning egg is cooked to measuring atmospheric pressure by lifting a piece of cardboard。 Her hands-on examples make her book a truly interactive read。

  Yes I must say this a equation-free book is an ideal read for scientists of all stripes, anyone teaching science and even people who dislike physics。

  Question 1: what does the woman say about the book the man recommended?

  Question 2: what can we find in the book the man recommended。?

  Question 3: How does the author bring her book to life?

  Question 4: How does the book cultivate readers interest in physics。

  conversation 2

  A:Hi professor。 I was hoping I could have a moment of your time if you‘re not too busy。 I’m having some problems getting started on my dissertation and I was hoping you could give me some advice on how to begin。

  B:Sure。 I have quite a few students though.So can you remind me what your topic is?

  A:the general topic I chose is aesthetics, but that‘s as far as I’ve got I don‘t really know where to go from there。

  B:Yeah,that‘s much too large a topic。 You really need to narrow it down in order to make it more accessible。 Otherwise you’ll be writing a book。

  A:Exactly。 That‘s what I wanted to ask you about。 I was hoping it would be possible for me to change topics。 I’m really more interested in nature than beauty。

  B:I‘m afraid you have to adhere to the assigned topic。 Still, If you’re interested in nature, then that certainly can be worked into your dissertation。 We‘ve talked about Hume before in class right。

  A:Oh yeah, he‘s the philosopher who wrote about where our ideas of beauty come from。

  B:Exactly。 I suggest you go to the library and get a copy of his biography。 Start from there。 But remember to stick to the parameters of the assignment。 This paper is a large part of your cumulative grade。 So make sure to follow the instructions。 If you take a look at his biography。 You can get a good idea of how his life experiences manifest themselves in his theories of beauty。 specifically the way he looked towards nature as the origin of what we find beautiful。

  A:Great。 Thanks for taking the time to answer my questions, Professor。 I‘ll let you get back to class now。

  B:If there‘s anything else you need, please come see me in my office any time。

  Question 5: What is the man‘s problem?

  Question 6 What does the professor think of the man‘s topic?

  Question 7 What’s the man really more interested in?

  Question 8 what does the professor say the man has to do?
  passage 1

  During the arctic winter from October to March, the average temperature in the frozen north typically hovers around minus 20 degrees Celsius。 But this year the Arctic is experiencing much higher temperatures。 On February the 20th the temperature in Greenland climbed above freezing or zero degrees Celsius and it stayed there for over 24 hours。 Then on February the 24th the temperature on Greenland‘s northern tip reached six degrees Celsius。 Climate scientists describe the phenomenon as stunning。 Weather conditions that drive this bizarre temperature surge have visited the Arctic before。 They typically appear about once in a decade。 However, the last such increase in temperature took place two years ago。 This is troubling as climbing arctic temperatures combined with rapid sea ice loss are creating a new type of climate feedback loop which could accelerate Arctic warming。 Indeed, sea ice cover in the Arctic is melting faster than expected。 Without those masses of cooling sea ice, warm air brought to the Arctic can penetrate further inland than it ever did before。 The air can stay warmer longer too。 This drives additional melting。 Overall earth is warming at a rapid pace。 2014 through 2017 rank as the hottest years on record and the Arctic is warming twice as fast as any place else on earth。 This raises unique challenges for Arctic wildlife and indigenous people who depend on Arctic ecosystems to survive。 Previously climate forecasts predicted that Arctic summer ice would disappear entirely by around 2060, but based on what scientists are seeing now the Arctic may be facing summers without ice within 20 years。

  Question 9。 What did climate scientists describe as stunning?

  A) The unprecedented high temperature in Greenland。

  Question 10。 What does the passage say about that temperature surge in the Arctic?

  Question 11。 what may occur in 20 years according to scientists’ recent observations?


  A good dose of willpower is often necessary to see any task through whether it‘s sticking to a spending plan or finishing a great novel。 And if you want to increase that willpower。 A new study suggests you just simply have to believe you have it。 According to this study, what matters most is what we think about our willpower。 If we believe it’s a finite resource, we act that way, we feel exhausted and need breaks between demanding mental tasks。 However, people who view their willpower as a limitless resource get energized instead。 The researchers used a psychological assessment tool to test the validity of the study。 They asked 1100 Americans and 1600 Europeans to grade different statements such as after a challenging mental activity, my energy is depleted and I must rest to get it refueled again or I can focus on a mental task for long periods without feeling tired。

  [00:01:08] Although there was little difference between men and women overall。 Americans were more likely to admit to needing breaks after completing mentally challenging tasks European participants on the other hand claimed they were able to keep going。 Based on the findings, the researchers suggest that the key to boosting your willpower is to believe that you have an abundant supply of it。 Your feelings about your willpower affect the way you behave。 But these feelings are changeable, they said。 Changing your beliefs about the nature of your self-control can have positive effects on character development。 This leads to healthier behaviors and perceptions of other people。

  Question 12 What is often necessary for carrying through a task?

  Question 13 What is the finding of the new study?

  Question 14 What do we learn about European participants as compared with their American counterparts?

  Question 15 What do the research say concerning people‘s feelings about willpower?
  lecture 1

  Here is my baby niece Sarah。 Her mum is a doctor and her dad is a lawyer。 By the time Sarah goes to college the jobs her parents do are going to look dramatically different。 In 2013,researchers at Oxford University did a study on the future of work。 They concluded that almost one in every two jobs has a high risk of being automated by machines。 Machine learning is the technology that‘s responsible for most of this disruption。 It’s the most powerful branch of artificial intelligence。 It allows machines to learn from data and copy some of the things that humans can do。 My company, Kaggle, operates on the cutting edge of machine learning。 We bring together hundreds of thousands of experts to solve important problems for industry and academia。 This gives us an unique perspective on what machines can do, what they can‘t do and what jobs they might automate or threaten。 Machine learning started making its way into industry in the early 90s。 It started with relatively simple tasks。 It started with things like assessing credit risk from loan applications, sorting the mail by reading handwritten zip codes。 Over the past few years, we have made dramatic breakthroughs。 Machine learning is now capable of far, far more complex tasks。 In 2012, Kaggle challenged its community to build a program that could grade high school essays。 The winning programs were able to match the grades given by human teachers。 Now given the right data, machines are going to outperform humans at tasks like this。 A teacher might read 10000 essays over a 40-year career。 A machine can read millions of essays within minutes。 We have no chance of competing against machines on frequent high-volume tasks, but there are things we can do that machines cannot。 Where machines have made very little progress is in tackling novel situations。 Machines can’t handle things they haven‘t seen many times before。 The fundamental limitation of machine learning is that it needs to learn from large volumes of past data。 But humans don’t。 We have the ability to connect seemingly different threads to solve problems we‘ve never seen before。

  Question 16 what did the researchers at Oxford University conclude?

  Question 17。 What do we learn about Kaggle companies winning programs?

  Question 18。 What is the fundamental limitation on machine learning?

  lecture 2

  we‘ve talked recently about the importance of sustainable energy。 We’ve also talked about the different theories on how that can be done。 So far, our discussions have all been theoretical。 Now I have a practical question for you all。 Can you run a 140,000 kilogram train on just the steam generated by solar power? Well, one engineer, Tim Casselman, believes it‘s possible。 And his home city of Sacramento, California should see the technology’s first test as part of the upgrading of its rail yard。 Casselman, who is an inventor and self-proclaimed steam visionary, is campaigning for a new steam train that runs without any fire and could run on an existing 10 kilometer line drawing tourists and perhaps offering city commuters a green alternative to their cars。 Casselman wants to build an array of solar magnifying mirrors at one end of the line to collect and focus heat onto water filled tubes。 This would generate steam that could be used to fill tanks on a small steam train without the use of fire。 Supplying power to trains in this way would offer the shortest distance from well to wheels he says with the least amount of energy lost。 According to Harry Valentijn, a Canadian engineer who is researching modern steam technology, a special tank measuring 2 by 10 metres could store over 750 kilowatt hours of energy as high pressure steam enough to pull a two car train for an hour or so。 Energy to drive a steam locomotive can be stored in other materials besides water for example a team at Tohoku University in Japan has studied materials that can store large amounts of heat when heated。 These materials turn from a solid into a liquid absorbing energy as they change phase。 The liquid is maintained above its melting point until steam is required at which point the liquid is allowed to turn back into a solid releasing its stored energy another team at Nagoya University in Japan has tested calcium compound as an energy storage material。 Heating this chemical compound drives off carbon dioxide gas leaving calcium oxide the gas can be stored under pressure and attain to recover the energy the gas is fed back over the calcium oxide。 In theory says Valentijn this can create a high enough temperature to generate superheated steam。

  Question 19: What has the speaker previously talked about?

  Question 20: What is Tim Casselman trying to do in Sacramento?

  Question 21: what has a Japanese research team tried to do?

  Lecture 3

  Today‘s crisis in care for older people in England has two main causes。

  First,people are living longer with a lot more complex needs。 Second, they rely on a system that has long been marked by a poor relation between national health and social-care services。

  Current services originate in two key measures。 They are the National Health Service and the 1948 National Assistance Act。 This required local government to provide residential accommodation for older people and supervise care homes run by independent organizations。

  They also provided home and community services including meals, day centers and home helpers and other subsidized services。 The National Health Service was free and wholly publicly provided。 It delivered the best health-care for all。 No such vision guided residential and community care though。 The care was substantially provided by voluntary services which worked together with local authorities as they long had with eligibility based on income。 Today, life expectancy has risen from 66 for a male at birth in 1948 to around 80 now。 In addition, there is better overall health and improved medical knowledge and care。 This means an unprecedented number of people are surviving longer in conditions requiring expert support。 Families provide at least as much care as they ever did。 Even so, they can rarely without subsidised support address serious personal needs。 Care for older people faced persistent criticism as these trends became apparent。 From the early 1960s, local authorities were required to plan health and welfare services。 The aim was to enable older people to remain in their own homes for as long as possible, but this increased concern about the lack of coordination between free health and paid-for social care。 Through the 1970s, a number of measures sought to improve matter。 However at a time of financial crisis, funding diminished and little changed。 In the 1980s, the government cut spending。 Meanwhile, preference for private over public services made management even more difficult。 Simultaneously, the number of sick older people grew。 Governments emphasized the need to improve services。 They did so though while doing little to stop the erosion of available aid。 Services were irregular across authorities。 Unless you were prepared to pay, they were increasingly difficult to obtain for any but the most severely disabled。 Why has 60 years of criticism produced so little change。 Discrimination against older people has a long history。 Additionally, those affected by inadequate health and social care are too vulnerable to launch the protests that have addressed other forms of discrimination。

  Question 22 what is one cause of the current crisis in care for the elderly in England?

  Question 23。 What does the speaker say about residential and community care?

  Question 24。 What made management of care for the elderly more difficult in the 1980s?

  Question 25。 What does the speaker say about older people in England?


  Surfing the Internet during class doesnt just steal focus from the educator, It also hurts students who are already struggling to___the material

  26. F grasp【理解】

  27. evaluated【评估】

  28. A aptitude【学习能力,天资】

  29. E filtering【 filter out过滤掉,排除掉

  30. M significant【明显的,显著的

  31. K raising【提高】

  32 O typical【典型的】

  33. N suffer这里 suffers考察的是熟词生义【变差;变得糟糕

  34. H minimize【使最小化】

  35. L resist【抵制】










  China is paying more and more attention to public libraries, and people are encouraged to make full use of them。 The newly published statistics show that the number of public libraries in China is increasing year by year。 Many libraries have created a quieter and more comfortable environment for readers through refurbishment and expansion。 Large public libraries not only provide a wide variety of reference materials, but also regularly hold activities such as lectures, exhibitions and so on。 In recent years, there have also been many digital libraries which can save the space to store books。 Some libraries have also introduced self-service systems, making it more convenient for readers to borrow and return books, which further meets the needs of readers。

  Do parents invade thildren's privacy when they post photos on line?


  36. Steinberg argued parental sharing online can be ber eficial

  37. According to an expert, when children reach school age, they can help their parents learn what can and cannot be done

  38. One mother refrained from posting her sons photos online when she considered the matter from her sons perspective.

  39. According to a study, more children than parents think there should be rules on parents shanng

  40 Katyn Burbidge had never realized she had to ask her son's approval to put his photos online

  41. A mother decided not to post her sons photo online when he asked her not to

  42. A woman pediatrician tries to help other parents by sharing her own parenting experience

  43. There are people who decide simply not to share their childrens photos online.

  44. Parents and physicians should realize sharing information online about children may involve risks

  45. Parents who share their parenting experiences may find themselves intruding into the children's privacy


  Resilience is about how you recharge not how you endure


  36. It has been found that inadequate recovery often leads to poor health and accidents

  37. Mental relax ation is much needed, just as physical relaxation is

  38. Adequate rest not only helps one recover, but also increases ones work efficiency

  30. The author always has a hectic time before taking a flight.

  40. Recovery may not take place even if one seems to have stop ped working

  41. It is advised that technology be used to prevent people from overworking

  42. Contrary to popular belief, rest does not equal recovet

  43.The author has come to see that his problem results from a misunderstanding of the meaning of resilience

  44 People s distorted view about resilience may have developed from their upbringing.

  45 People tend to think the more determined they are, the greater their success will be

  A pioneering woman of science re-emerges after 300 years


  36merian was the first scientist to study a type of American ant

  37 The European audience was more interested in Merian's drawings than her gender.

  38, Merian's masterpiece came under attack a century after its publication

  39. Merian's mistakes in her drawings may be attributed to her shortened stay in Southamerica.

  40Merian often sat up the whole night through to observe and draw insects

  41 Merian acknowledged the help she got from natives of South America

  42 Merlan contributed greatly to peoples better understanding of medicine and sclence

  43 Merian occasionally made mistakes in her drawings of insects and birds

  44 Now Merian's role as a female forerunner in sciences has been re-established

  45 Merian made a long voyage to South America to study jungle insects over three centuries ago

Part I Writing (30 minutes)

Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an essay on how to balance job responsibilities and personal interests. You can cite examples to illustrate your views. You should write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.


Part I Writing (30 minutes)

Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an essay on how to balance academic study and extracurriculum activities. You can cite examples to illustrate your views. You should write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.


Part I Writing (30 minutes)

Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an essay on how to balance work and leisure. You can cite examples to illustrate your views. You should write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.


Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay on how to balance work and leisure. You have to write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words。


There is a hot discussion about how to balance work and leisure. Against a backdrop of an era characterized by opportunity and challenges, more and more people put focus on their job and ignore the importance of entertainment. To make our work more efficient and live a healthier life, as far as I am concerned, they are relative and should be balanced well.

The skill to balance study and work contributes directly to enhancing our work performance, if one wants to achieve his target or intends to fulfill his ambition, he will have to possess the scientific attitude toward the balance of work and leisure, otherwise he will not achieve any success. Additionally, when we spend much of our time on working, both of our physical and mental condition would be in a depressing state, which means we need proper leisure to refresh our spirit.

Taking an objective and rational attitude toward the balance of work and leisure is very important. On the one hand, we could arrange our work in advance and complete it efficiently in time; on the other hand, we could take advantage of our spare time to develop a hobby or just relax ourselves. Only in this way could we better our living quality further.





Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an essay on how to balance academic study and extracurriculum activities/how to balance job responsibilities and personal interests/how to balance work and leisure. You have to write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.


How to Balance Academic Study and Extracurriculum Activities

Currently, with the competition becoming fierce, a growing number of undergraduates are under great pressure in their life, which bring negative influence on their mental and physical health. Therefore, how to balance academic study and extracurriculum activities becomes one of heated topics among college students.

For my part, both academic study and extracurriculum activities are critical to college students. On the one hand, there is no doubt in saying that college students should give priority to their academic study, since it contributes directly to their expertise, job hunting as well as academic achievements. On the other hand, extracurriculum activities also plays an indispensable role in college life in that extracurriculum activities like basketball, soccer and so on can relax ourselves, relieve our pressure and most importantly, enhance physical fitness. All these factors are vital to a efficient way of academic study.

In conclusion, it is high time that college students should paid close attention to taking part in appropriate extracurriculum activities. Only in this way can they be engaged in academic studies and hold a positive attitude toward college life.








In recent years, a growing number of museums in China are open to the public for free. The time of exhibition and the number of visitors has all risen dramatically. In front of the gate of some well-received museums, long lines is very common. These museums have to take measures to limit the number of visitors. Nowadays, with the forms of exhibition becoming increasingly various, some large museums are using the advanced technologies like multimedia and virtual reality to make exhibitions more attractive. Not a few museums are also holding exhibitions on line, where people can view rare and valuable exhibits. However, the experience of viewing exhibits on the scene is more attractive to most visitors.



越来越重视 pay more attention to

对...充分利用 take full advantage of

新近公布的统计数字 the latest released statistical figures

逐年增长 xx has increased year by year

种类繁多的参考资料 all kinds of references 或者 a wide variety of references

自助服务系统 self-services systems





China tends to pay more attention to the public libraries and encourages people to take full advantage of them. The latest released statistical figures show that the number of Chinese public libraries has increased year by year. Many libraries with renovation and extension create quiet and comfortable environment for readers.There are not only all kinds of references provided but also lectures and exhibitions held. In recent years, many figure libraries have appeared, which could save the space of storing books. Several libraries also supply self-services systems to make borrowing and returning books more convenient, meeting readers’ needs further.


Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to translate a passage from Chinese into English. You should write your answer on ANSWER SHEET 2.




In recent years, the Chinese government has increased its investment in the construction of gymnasiums to meet people’s rapidly-growing demands for bodybuilding. Besides, many cities have modified old factories and commercial buildings to increase the number of local gymnasiums. Under the support of the government’s fund, an increasing number of gymnasiums are open to the public free of charge or for a low fee. Many gymnasiums have improved their service through modern information technology, which enables people to book and pay in advance. It can be predicted that with the continuous improvement of sports facilities, more and more people will take exercises in gymnasiums.



时态确定了之后,大家则需要把注意力放在具体内容的翻译上了。首先是主题词“体育馆”(gymnasiums);其次是各句中相对难一点的表达,包括“加大体育馆建设投资”(increased investment in the construction of gymnasiums)、“快速增长的健身需求”(rapidly-growing demands for bodybuilding)、“提前预订场地和付费”(book and pay in advance)、“运动设施的不断改善”(the continuous improvement of sports facilities)。

最后还要跟大家强调一点,无需时时刻刻都进行字对字翻译。比如原文中所说的“除了新建体育馆外”、“通过应用”和“提高服务质量”,因为涉及到了前后句意重复或单纯是概念性表达,只要翻译出核心含义就可以了。比如,“提高服务质量”译为“improved their service”而不必是“improved their service quality”。


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